Diabetes is a condition where the human body fails to produce enough insulin to meet the body's needs and/or their cells don't respond properly to insulin. .


Insulin is a hormone made in your pancreas, a gland located behind your stomach. It allows your body to use glucose for energy. If the insulin is unavailable or does not work to move glucose from the body into cells, glucose remains in the blood.


Glucose is a type of sugar found in many carbohydrates.The human body cells use glucose as a source of energy. Glucose is gained through the food that people eat.High blood glucose levels are toxic, and the cells that do not get glucose will lack the fuel they need to function properly.

The two main kinds of diabetes are Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes. More than 90% of people have Type 2 diabetes. Over a third of people with Type 2 diabetes is unaware about them having the disease and is not receiving the required treatment because, for many people, early symptoms are not noticeable without testing.

Type 1 Diabetes occurs when the pancreas cannot make insulin. Everyone with Type 1 diabetes requires insulin injections. Most people are diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes during their childhood or adolescent years. Type 1 diabetes is found most commonly in people of northern European ancestry.

Type 2 Diabetes occurs when the pancreas fails to make enough insulin for the body or if the does not use insulin properly. It usually occurs in adults, although in some cases children are affected too. People with type 2 diabetes usually have a family history of this condition and 90% are overweight or obese. People with Type 2 diabetes may eventually need insulin injections. This condition occurs most commonly in people of Indigenous and African descent, Hispanics, and Asians.

Gestational diabetes is another form of diabetes which is found less common. It is a temporary condition that occurs during pregnancy. The problem usually clears up after delivery, but women who have had gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes in the later course of life.

Prediabetes is a term used to describe blood sugar levels that are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. Many people with prediabetes go on to develop diabetes.

Diabetes can be diagnosed with simple blood tests. Your doctor can select one of four tests to assess if you have diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes
Urinates Frequently Urinates Frequently
Excessive thirst Persistent,mild thirst
Experience tiredness Experience mild fatigueness
Severe weight loss Blurred vision
The A1C test The FPG (fasting plasma glucose) test The OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) Random plasma glucose level
at least 6.5% means diabetes at least 126 mg/dl means diabetes at least 200 mg/dl means diabetes at least 200 mg/dl or greater means diabetes
between 5.7% and 5.99% means prediabetes between 100 mg/dl and 125.99 mg/dl means prediabetes between 140 and 199.9 mg/dl means prediabetes
less than 5.7% means normal less than 100 mg/dl means normal less than 140 mg/dl means normal

Where to seek help

You need a medical team that knows about diabetes very well. They could include:

  • An endocrinologist, who has a lot of experience working with people who have diabetes.
  • An ophthalmologist for your eyes.
  • A pharmacist, who's familiar with all your medicines.
  • A registered dietitian, who can give you pointers on what to eat.
  • A diabetes educator.
Treatment for Type 1 Diabetes Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes
Taking insulin Healthy eating
Carbohydrate, fat and protein counting Regular exercise
Frequent blood sugar monitoring Possibly, diabetes medication or insulin therapy
Eating healthy foods Blood sugar monitoring
Exercising regularly and maintaining a healthy weight